P&O - FERRIES & SHIPPING
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- In January 2019 P&O Ferries announced that its UK fleet would be reflagged from Dover, UK to Limassol, Cyprus in response to the United Kingdom's exit from the European Union in 2019 "For operational and accounting reasons". Cyprus is a member of the EU and a flag of convenience; the reflagging will allow P&O to continue to benefit from EU tax arrangements. According to the Rail, Maritime and Transport union, the reflagging is "pure opportunism", saying that the firm's "long-term aim has always been to switch the UK fleet to a tax haven register".
P&O originally established ferry services in the United Kingdom in the late 1960s in the North Sea and the
Channel. In the late 1970s P&O was affected by a reduction in traditional shipping activities which saw the sale of a number of its businesses and assets. This continued into 1985 with the sale of its cross-channel ferry activities to European Ferries, which at the time consisted of services on the Port of Dover–Boulogne and Southampton–Le Havre routes.
Coastal tourism depends on people being able to get to the coast from inland conveniently, and in some cases to hop across the water from one coast to another. Cross Channel ferries were born to cater for those who wanted to experience the sea and see life on the opposite side of the English Channel, or Le Manche as it is known in France. The EuroTunnel is another way of getting to the other side of the Channel, with claims to be low carbon but has limited service for passengers.
Ferry services are needed to get from Ireland to England via St George's Channel and to and from the Isle of Man across the Irish Sea, from England to the Isle of Wight and umpteen other islands, such as Skye and Mull in Scotland. Roll on roll off ferries allow drivers to tour in their own vehicles.
Ferry services operate all over the world to transport passengers to and from the myriad islands, transporting passengers and goods. Such services are essential transport for goods apart from coastal tourism, the trade for which exotic locations in on the rise calculated in the $Billions of dollars, despite a 2018 Report telling us that global tourism is responsible for 8% of carbon emissions, much of which is blamed on the burning of aviation kerosene, the equivalent of the old sulfurous bunker heavy oil fuels now outlawed by the IMO's MARPOL regulations.
Coastal tourism is also popular for sailors who want a long weekend on the water and for those who want to explore the coasts of Europe, the Adriatic, Baltic, Bay of Biscay, Black Sea, and Mediterranean Sea.
FERRY ROUTES - Apart from Dover to Calais and Newhaven to Dieppe, there are many other longer sailings that give you a choice of destination in France. These are some Brittany ferry sailings.
CROSS CHANNEL FERRY OPERATORS & ISLAND SERVICES
CROSS CHANNEL FERRY OPERATORS & ROUTE OPTIONS
The English Channel stretches for about 350 miles and is 150 miles across at its widest point, while the narrowest is a mere 21 miles at the Dover Strait.
The cross channel ferry route you choose is sure to be influenced by multiple factors. Cost of the fare is one of the main priorities as is speed of transit. But there are other considerations that could save you money and time in the long term.
Sometimes the shortest route isn’t the most convenient for accessing much of France. What you save in cheaper ferry fares you might pay for in diesel and petrol fuels for conventional ICE cars, and tolls because of a longer land journey. The heralding in of electric vehicles with supporting infrastructure will change that, as will the 2030 targets set by the IMO for lower shipping emissions begin to take effect as they are gradually implemented.
Assuming that these targets are met, more local coastal tourism will be far more sustainable than global tourism reliant on flying to exotic destinations, no matter how alluring the thought of white sandy beaches and clear blue tropical seas.
BLUE GROWTH STRATEGY
As part of EU's Blue Growth strategy, the coastal and maritime tourism sector has been identified as an area with special potential to foster a smart, sustainable and inclusive Europe. It is the biggest maritime sector in terms of gross value added and employment and, according to the Blue Growth Study is expected to increase by 2-3% by 2020. In 2012, Cruise tourism alone represents 330,000 jobs and a direct turnover of €15.5 billion and is expected to grow.
European Maritime Day (EMD) 2013 focused on coastal and maritime tourism and was the opportunity to introduce the results of a public consultation launched to prepare a communication on coastal and maritime tourism. The EU Commission adopted a Communication on "A European Strategy for more Growth and Jobs in Coastal and Maritime Tourism" on 20 February 2014, presenting a new strategy to enhance coastal and maritime tourism in Europe in order to unlock the potential of this promising sector.
The extraordinary beauty, cultural wealth and great diversity of EU's coastal areas have made them the preferred destination for many holidaymakers in Europe and abroad.
This sector employs over 3.2 million people, generating a total of € 183 billion in gross value added and representing over one third of the maritime economy. As much as 51% of bed capacity in hotels across Europe is concentrated in regions with a sea border.
LINKS & REFERENCE
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