CHANGE COP 21 2015
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THAT - The United Nations Climate Change Conferences are yearly conferences held in the framework of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
(UNFCCC). They serve as the formal meeting of the UNFCCC Parties (Conference of the Parties, COP) to assess progress in dealing with climate change, and beginning in the mid-1990s, to negotiate the Kyoto Protocol to establish legally binding obligations for developed countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. From 2005 the Conferences have also served as the "Conference of the Parties Serving as the Meeting of Parties to the Kyoto Protocol"
(CMP); also parties to the Convention that are not parties to the Protocol can participate in Protocol-related meetings as observers. From 2011 the meetings have also been used to negotiate the Paris Agreement as part of the Durban platform activities until its conclusion in 2015, which created a general path towards climate action. The first UN Climate Change Conference was held in 1995 in Berlin.
2015: COP 21/CMP 11, Paris, France - United Nations Climate Change Conference and Paris Agreement
The COP 21 was held in Paris from 30 November to 12 December 2015. Negotiations resulted in the adoption of the
Paris Agreement on 12 December, governing
climate change reduction measures from 2020. The adoption of this agreement ended the work of the Durban platform, established during
COP17. The agreement will enter into force (and thus become fully effective) on November 4, 2016. On October 4, 2016 the threshold for adoption was reached with over 55 countries representing at least 55% of the world's
greenhouse gas emissions ratifying the Agreement.
DAILY MAIL EARTH DAY 2016 -
Leonardo DiCaprio told world leaders at the United Nations on Friday that they are the 'last best hope' for saving the planet from the disastrous effects of global warming.
The Academy Award winner urged them to leave fossil fuels 'in the ground where they belong' as he spoke before the Paris Agreement for Climate Change Signing.
'We can congratulate each other today, but it will mean absolutely nothing' if you return to your countries and don't take action to implement the deal, DiCaprio said.
The 41-year-old actor's impassioned speech at the UN Headquarters in New York fell on Earth Day.
'Our planet cannot be saved unless we leave fossil fuels in the ground where they belong,' DiCaprio said.
DiCaprio, who was designated a UN Messenger of the Peace in 2014, called on the countries to do more than they have agreed upon.
'Now is the time for bold, unprecedented action. My friends, look at the delegates around you, it is time to ask each other, which side of history will you be on?'
Last year was the hottest on record and average temperatures have already climbed by almost 1 degree Celsius.
Scientific analyses show the initial set of targets that countries pledged before Paris don't match the agreement's long-term goal to keep global warming below 2 degrees Celsius compared with pre-industrial times.
'No more talk, no more excuses, no more 10-year studies,' DiCaprio said.
'This is the body that can do what is needed, all of you sitting in this very hall,' he added. 'The world is now watching. You will either be lauded by future generations or vilified by them.'
DiCaprio opened his speech with a comparison to former president Abraham Lincoln and his stance on Slavery.
He said: 'President Abraham Lincoln was also thinking of bold action 150 years ago when he said: "The dogmas of the quiet past are inadequate to the stormy present, as our case is new, so we must think anew and act anew. We must disenthrall ourselves and then we shall save our country".
'He was speaking in front of congress to discuss slavery. Everyone knew it had to end, but no one had the political will to stop it. Remarkably his words ring as true today when applied to the defining crisis of our time: climate change.'
He said an 'upheaval, a massive change' is required by everyone in order to save the planet from its current state.
'One that leads to a new collective consciousness, a new collective evolution of the human race, inspired and enabled by a sense of urgency from all of you,' he said.
When he finished his speech, he brought climate change back to the words Lincoln said so many years ago.
'Lincoln's words still resonate to all of us here today: "We will be remembered in spite of ourselves,' he said.
'"The fiery trial through which we pass will light us down in honor or dishonor to the last generation. We shall nobly save or meanly lose the last best hope of Earth",' DiCaprio added as he continued to quote Lincoln. 'That is our charge now.
'You are the last, best hope of Earth. We ask you to protect it. Or we and all living things we cherish, are history.'
The Paris Agreement, the world's response to hotter temperatures, rising seas and other impacts of climate change, was reached in December as a major breakthrough in UN climate negotiations, which for years were slowed by disputes between rich and poor countries over who should do what.
Under the agreement, countries set their own targets for reducing emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. The targets are not legally binding, but countries must update them every five years.
The agreement will enter into force once 55 countries representing at least 55 percent of global emissions have formally joined it. Maros Sefcovic, the energy chief for another top emitter, the 28-nation European Union, has said the EU wants to be in the 'first wave' of ratifying countries.
French President Francois Hollande, the first to sign the agreement, said Friday he will ask parliament to ratify it by this summer. France's environment minister is in charge of global climate negotiations.
Leaders from 171 countries congregated at the United Nations Headquarters to sign the landmark agreement on Friday.
It is unknown how DiCaprio traveled to the UN conference, having been spotted at Coachella in California just last week. The actor is known for his private-jet travels.
The Paris Agreement (Accord de Paris), Paris climate accord or Paris climate agreement is an agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on
Climate Change (UNFCCC) dealing with greenhouse gas emissions mitigation, adaptation and finance starting in the year 2020. The language of the agreement was negotiated by representatives of 196 parties at the 21st Conference of the Parties of the UNFCCC in Paris and adopted by consensus on 12 December 2015. As of November 2017, 195 UNFCCC members have signed the agreement, and 170 have become party to it. The Agreement aims to respond to the global climate change threat by keeping a global temperature rise this century well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase even further to 1.5 degrees Celsius.
In the Paris Agreement, each country determines, plans and regularly reports its own contribution it should make in order to mitigate
warming. There is no mechanism to force a country to set a specific target by a specific date, but each target should go beyond previously set targets.
In June 2017, U.S. President Donald Trump announced his intention to withdraw the
United States from the agreement, causing widespread condemnation both internationally and domestically. Under the agreement, the earliest effective date of withdrawal for the U.S. is November 2020.
In July 2017, France’s environment minister Nicolas Hulot announced France’s five-year plan to ban all
diesel vehicles by 2040 as part of the Paris Agreement. Hulot also stated that
France would no longer use
coal to produce
electricity after 2022 and that up to €4 billion will be invested in boosting energy efficiency.
COP - What’s it all about?
The international political response to climate change began at the Rio Earth Summit in 1992, where the ‘Rio Convention’ included the adoption of the UN Framework on
Climate Change (UNFCCC). This convention set out a framework for action aimed at stabilising atmospheric concentrations of
greenhouse gases (GHGs) to avoid “dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.” The UNFCCC which entered into force on 21 March 1994, now has a near-universal membership of 195 parties.
The main objective of the annual Conference of Parties (COP) is to review the Convention’s implementation. The first COP took place in Berlin in 1995 and significant meetings since then have included COP3 where the Kyoto Protocol was adopted, COP11 where the Montreal Action Plan was produced, COP15 in Copenhagen where an agreement to success Kyoto Protocol was unfortunately not realised and COP17 in Durban where the Green Climate Fund was created.
2, GENEVA, SWITZERLAND
3, KYOTO, JAPAN
4, BUENOS AIRES, ARGENTINA
5, BONN, GERMANY
6, THE HAGUE, NETHERLANDS
7, MARRAKECH, MOROCCO
8, NEW DELHI, INDIA
9, MILAN, ITALY
10, BUENOS AIRES, ARGENTINA
11/CMP 1, MONTREAL, CANADA
12/CMP 2, NAIROBI, KENYA
13/CMP 3, BALI, INDONESIA
14/CMP 4, POZNAN, POLAND
COP 15/CMP 5, COPENHAGEN, DENMARK
16/CMP 6, CANCUN, MEXICO
17/CMP 7, DURBAN, SOUTH AFRICA
18/CMP 8, DOHA, QATAR
19/CMP 9, WARSAW, POLAND
20/CMP 10, LIMA, PERU
21/CMP 11, Paris, France
22/CMP 12/CMA 1, Marrakech, Morocco
23/CMP 13/CMA 2, Bonn, Germany
24/CMP 14/CMA 3, Katowice, Poland
25/CMP 15/CMA 4, Santiago, Chile
COP 26/CMP 16/CMA 5, TBA
OUT - Was all the hard work of John Kerry a feint during
administration to cajole an international commitment that the
USA had no intention of following through? We doubt that very
much. More likely is that Hicksville greed took hold as US
citizens during the last election as they grasped this
opportunity to preserve their oil guzzling, fast food,
lifestyles for another four (or maybe eight) years, at the
expense of the more responsible countries who made pledges
they believe in. In our view that is short term-ism that is likely
to rebound on the United States in terms of energy
security in particular, but may also have a world trade
deficit if such a thing as Carbon Tax Analysis Certificates
were applied to goods produced anywhere in the world, such
that energy used in production became a buying and
transportation license issue. If that were the case, the US
might have difficulty exporting cars such as Jeeps,
and munitions. Not that that would be a bad thing for the arms
trade. Anything produced in such a high carbon emitting
country could become difficult to sell internationally - with
potential bans on transporting climate unfriendly products.
UNFCCC secretariat is located at two different locations.
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