RIVERS & LAKES of the WORLD

 

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WATER CYCLE - There is very little by way of pollution higher up at the source of most rivers. Water flows downhill, washing waste away in a never ending cycle.

 

 

There are thousands of rivers in the world that are a few kilometers long, so not long enough to carry significant accumulated waste to the sea. The longer a river, the more chance of it gathering waste and passing that waste into an ocean or sea, dependent on the human population along the banks of that river and any industrial plants that may discharge chemicals or even nuclear contamination. As we are concerned with ocean regeneration and waste reduction we will be looking at the rivers that are most likely to be a significant source of pollution when it exits into the sea, hence the starting point is rivers with the greatest length.

 

 

 

 

There are of course many well known rivers that are shorter than 500 kilometers and that are extremely polluted having passed through a major city, such as the rivers: Thames, Seine and Po - and we will look at those as and when there are reports of high waste content.

 

Meantime, the following lists form a guide as to 165 potential geographical sources of significant pollution that may warrant the stationing of a RiverVax or two.

 

 

LIST OF RIVERS OVER 4000 KILOMETERS IN LENGTH

 

No NAME L (km) L (miles) Area (km²) Ave discharge (m³/s) Outflow Drainage basin
. . . . . . . .

1.

Nile

6,650

4,135

3,349,000

5,100

Mediterranean Sea

Ethiopia, Eritrea, Sudan, Uganda, Tanzania, Kenya, Rwanda, Burundi, Egypt, Democratic Republic of the Congo

2.

Amazon

6,400

3,980

6,915,000

219,000

Atlantic Ocean

Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela, Guyana

3.

Yangtze
(Chang Jiang)

6,300

3,917

1,800,000

31,900

East China Sea

P.R. China

4.

Mississippi - Missouri

6,275

3,902

2,980,000

16,200

Gulf of Mexico

United States (98.5%), Canada (1.5%)

5.

Yenisei - Angara - Selenga

5,539

3,445

2,580,000

19,600

Kara Sea

Russia, Mongolia

6.

Yellow
(Huang He)

5,464

3,398

745,000

2,110

Bohai Sea

P.R. China

7.

Ob - Irtysh

5,410

3,364

2,990,000

12,800

Gulf of Ob

Russia, Kazakhstan, P.R. China, Mongolia

8.

 Congo - Chambeshi
(Zaire)

4,700

2,922

3,680,000

41,800

Atlantic Ocean

Democratic Republic of the Congo, Central African Republic, Angola, Republic of the Congo, Tanzania, Cameroon, Zambia, Burundi, Rwanda

9.

Amur - Argun
(Heilong Jiang)

4,444

2,763

1,855,000

11,400

Sea of Okhotsk

Russia, P.R. China, Mongolia

10.

 Lena

4,400

2,736

2,490,000

17,100

Laptev Sea

Russia

11.

Mekong
(Lancang Jiang)

4,350

2,705

810,000

16,000

South China Sea

Laos, Thailand, P.R. China, Cambodia, Vietnam, Myanmar

12.

Mackenzie - Peace - Finlay

4,241

2,637

1,790,000

10,300

Beaufort Sea

Canada

13.

Niger

4,200

2,611

2,090,000

9,570

Gulf of Guinea

Nigeria (26.6%), Mali (25.6%), Niger (23.6%), Algeria (7.6%), Guinea (4.5%), Cameroon (4.2%), Burkina Faso (3.9%), Côte d'Ivoire, Benin, Chad

 

 

LIST OF RIVERS OVER 3000 KILOMETERS IN LENGTH

 

 

No NAME L (km) L (miles) Area (km²) Ave discharge (m³/s) Outflow Drainage basin
. . . . . . . .

14.

Paraná (Río de la Plata)

3,998

2,486

3,100,000

25,700

Atlantic Ocean

Brazil (46.7%), Argentina (27.7%), Paraguay (13.5%), Bolivia (8.3%), Uruguay (3.8%)

15.

Volga

3,645

2,266

1,380,000

8,080

Caspian Sea

Russia (99.8%), Kazakhstan (minor)

16.

Shatt al-Arab - Euphrates

3,596

2,236

884,000

856

Persian Gulf

Iraq (40.5%), Turkey (24.8%), Iran (19.7%), Syria (14.7%)

17.

Purus

3,379

2,101

63,166

8,400

Amazon

Brazil, Peru

18.

Murray - Darling

3,370 [1]

2,094

1,061,000

767

Southern Ocean

Australia

19.

Madeira - Mamoré

3,239

2,014

850,000

17,000

Amazon

Brazil, Bolivia, Peru

20.

Yukon

3,184

1,980

850,000

6,210

Bering Sea

United States (59.8%), Canada (40.2%)

21.

Indus (Sindhu)

3,180

1,976

960,000

7,160

Arabian Sea

Pakistan (93%), India, P. R. China, disputed territory (Kashmir), Afghanistan

22.

São Francisco

3,180
(2,900)

1,976
(1,802)

610,000

3,300

Atlantic Ocean

Brazil

23.

Syr Darya - Naryn

3,078

1,913

219,000

703

Aral Sea

Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan

24.

Salween (Nu Jiang)

3,060

1,901

324,000

3,153 [2]

Andaman Sea

P.R. China (52.4%), Myanmar (43.9%), Thailand (3.7%)

25.

Saint Lawrence - Niagara-Detroit-Saint Clair-Saint Marys-Saint Louis

3,058

1,900

1,030,000

10,100

Gulf of Saint Lawrence

Canada (52.1%), United States (47.9%)

26.

Rio Grande

3,057
(2,896)

1,900
(1,799)

570,000

82

Gulf of Mexico

United States (52.1%), Mexico (47.9%)

 

 

 

 

 

LIST OF RIVERS OVER 2000 KILOMETERS IN LENGTH

 

No NAME L (km) L (miles) Area (km²) Ave discharge (m³/s) Outflow Drainage basin
. . . . . . . .

27.

Lower Tunguska

2,989

1,857

473,000

3,600

Yenisei

Russia

28.

Brahmaputra

2,948

1,832

1,730,000

19,200 [3]

Bay of Bengal

India (58.0%), P.R. China (19.7%), Nepal (9.0%), Bangladesh (6.6%), Disputed India/P.R. China (4.2%), Bhutan (2.4%)

29.

Danube

2,850

1,771

817,000

7,130

Black Sea

Romania (28.9%), Hungary (11.7%), Austria (10.3%), Serbia (10.3%), Germany (7.5%), Slovakia (5.8%), Bulgaria (5.2%), Bosnia and Herzegovina (4.8%), Croatia (4.5%), Ukraine (3.8%), Moldova (1.7%).

30.

Tocantins

2,699

1,677

1,400,000

13,598

Atlantic Ocean, Amazon

Brazil

31.

Zambezi

2,693

1,673

1,330,000

4,880

Mozambique Channel

Zambia (41.6%), Angola (18.4%), Zimbabwe (15.6%), Mozambique (11.8%), Malawi (8.0%), Tanzania (2.0%), Namibia, Botswana

32.

Vilyuy

2,650

1,647

454,000

1,480

Lena

Russia

33.

Araguaia

2,627

1,632

358,125

6,172

Tocantins

Brazil

34.

Amu Darya

2,620

1,628

534,739

1,400

Aral Sea

Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan

35.

Japurá
(Rio Yapurá)

2,615

1,625

242,259

6,000

Amazon

Brazil, Colombia

36.

Nelson - Saskatchewan

2,570

1,597

1,093,000

2,575

Hudson Bay

Canada, United States

37.

Paraguay
(Rio Paraguay)

2,549

1,584

900,000

4,300

Paraná

Brazil, Paraguay, Bolivia, Argentina

38.

Kolyma

2,513

1,562

644,000

3,800

East Siberian Sea

Russia

39.

Ganges

2,510

1,560

907,000

12,037 [4]

Brahmaputra, Bay of Bengal

India, Bangladesh, Nepal

40.

Pilcomayo

2,500

1,553

270,000

 

Paraguay

Paraguay, Argentina, Bolivia

41.

Upper Ob

2,490

1,547

 

Ob

Russia

42.

Ishim

2,450

1,522

177,000

56

Irtysh

Kazakhstan, Russia

43.

Juruá

2,410

1,498

200,000

6,000

Amazon

Peru, Brazil

44.

Ural

2,428

1,509

237,000

475

Caspian Sea

Russia, Kazakhstan

45.

Arkansas

2,348

1,459

505,000
(435,122)

1,066

Mississippi

United States

46.

Ubangi - Uele

2,300

1,429

 

4,003

Congo

Democratic Republic of the Congo, Central African Republic

47.

Olenyok

2,292

1,424

219,000

1,210

Laptev Sea

Russia

48.

Dnieper

2,287

1,421

516,300

1,670

Black Sea

Russia, Belarus, Ukraine

49.

Aldan

2,273

1,412

729,000

5,060

Lena

Russia

50.

Negro

2,250

1,450

720,114

26,700

Amazon

Brazil, Venezuela, Colombia

51.

Columbia

2,250 (1,953)

1,450 (1,214)

415,211

7500

Pacific Ocean

United States, Canada

52.

Colorado (western U.S.)

2,333

1,450

390,000

1,200

Gulf of California

United States, Mexico

53.

Pearl - Xi Jiang

2,200

1,376

437,000

13,600

South China Sea

P.R. China (98.5%), Vietnam (1.5%)

54.

Red

2,188

1,360

78,592

875

Mississippi

United States

55.

Ayeyarwady
(Irrawaddy)

2,170

1,348

411,000

13,000

Andaman Sea

Myanmar

56.

Kasai

2,153

1,338

880,200

10,000

Congo

Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo

57.

Ohio - Allegheny

2,102

1,306

490,603

7,957

Mississippi

United States

58.

Orinoco

2,101

1,306

880,000

30,000

Atlantic Ocean

Venezuela, Colombia, Guyana

59.

Tarim

2,100

1,305

557,000

 

Lop Nur

P. R. China

60.

Xingu

2,100

1,305

 

Amazon

Brazil

61.

Orange

2,092

1,300

 

Atlantic Ocean

South Africa, Namibia, Botswana, Lesotho

62.

Northern Salado

2,010

1,249

 

Paraná

Argentina

 

 

LIST OF RIVERS OVER 1000 KILOMETERS IN LENGTH

No NAME L (km) L (miles) Area (km²) Ave discharge (m³/s) Outflow Drainage basin
. . . . . . . .

63.

Vitim

1,978

1,229

 

Lena

Russia

64.

Tigris

1,950

1,212

 

Shatt al-Arab

Turkey, Iraq, Syria, Iran

65.

Songhua

1,927

1,197

 

Amur

P. R. China

66.

Tapajós

1,900

1,181

 

Amazon

Brazil

67.

Don

1,870

1,162

425,600

935

Sea of Azov

Russia

68.

Stony Tunguska

1,865

1,159

240,000

 

Yenisei

Russia

69.

Pechora

1,809

1,124

322,000

 

Barents Sea

Russia

70.

Kama

1,805

1,122

507,000

 

Volga

Russia

71.

Limpopo

1,800

1,118

413,000

 

Indian Ocean

Mozambique, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Botswana

72.

Guaporé (Itenez)

1,749

1,087

 

Mamoré

Brazil, Bolivia

73.

Indigirka

1,726

1,072

360,400

1,810

East Siberian Sea

Russia

74.

Snake

1,670

1,038

279,719

1,611

Columbia

United States

75.

Senegal

1,641

1,020

419,659

 

Atlantic Ocean

Senegal, Mali, Mauritania

76.

Uruguay

1,610

1,000

370,000

 

Atlantic Ocean

Uruguay, Argentina, Brazil

77.

Blue Nile

1,600

994

 

Nile

Ethiopia, Sudan

77.

Churchill

1,600

994

 

Hudson Bay

Canada

77.

Khatanga

1,600

994

 

Laptev Sea

Russia

77.

Okavango

1,600

994

 

Okavango Delta

Namibia, Angola, Botswana

77.

Volta

1,600

994

 

Gulf of Guinea

Ghana, Burkina Faso, Togo, Côte d'Ivoire, Benin

82.

Beni

1,599

994

 

Madeira

Bolivia

83.

Platte

1,594

990

 

Missouri

United States

84.

Tobol

1,591

989

 

Irtysh

Kazakhstan, Russia

85.

Jubba - Shebelle

1,580

982

 

Indian Ocean

Ethiopia, Somalia

86.

Içá (Putumayo)

1,575

979

 

Amazon

Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador

87.

Magdalena

1,550

963

 

Caribbean Sea

Colombia

88.

Han

1,532

952

 

Yangtze

P. R. China

89.

Lomami

1,500

932

 

Congo

Democratic Republic of the Congo

89.

Oka

1,500

932

 

Volga

Russia

90.

Pecos

1,490

926

 

Rio Grande

United States

91.

Upper Yenisei

1,480

920

 

Yenisei

Russia, Mongolia

92.

Godavari

1,465

910

 

Bay of Bengal

India

93.

Colorado (Texas)

1,438

894

 

Gulf of Mexico

United States

94.

Río Grande (Guapay)

1,438

894

 

Ichilo

Bolivia

95.

Belaya

1,420

882

 

Kama

Russia

96.

Cooper - Barcoo

1,420

880

 

Lake Eyre

Australia

97.

Marañón

1,415

879

 

Amazon

Peru

98.

Dniester

1,411 (1,352)

877 (840)

 

Black Sea

Ukraine, Moldova

99.

Benue

1,400

870

 

Niger

Cameroon, Nigeria

99.

Ili (Yili)

1,400

870

 

Lake Balkhash

P. R. China, Kazakhstan

99.

Warburton - Georgina

1,400

870

 

Lake Eyre

Australia

102.

Sutlej

1,372

852

 

Chenab

China, India, Pakistan

103.

Yamuna

1,370

851

 

Ganges

India

103.

Vyatka

1,370

851

 

Kama

Russia

105.

Fraser

1,368

850

 

3,475

Pacific Ocean

Canada

106.

Kura

1,364

848

 

Caspian Sea

Azerbaijan, Georgia, Armenia, Turkey, Iran

107.

Grande

1,360

845

 

Paraná

Brazil

108.

Brazos

1,352

840

 

Gulf of Mexico

United States

109.

Cauca River

1,350

839

 

Magdalena River

Colombia

110.

Liao

1,345

836

 

Bo Hai

P. R. China

111.

Yalong

1,323

822

 

Yangtze

P. R. China

112.

Iguaçu

1,320

820

 

Paraná

Brazil, Argentina

112.

Olyokma

1,320

820

 

Lena

Russia

112.

Rhine

1,320

820

198,735

2,330

North Sea

Germany, France, Switzerland, Netherlands, Austria, Belgium, Luxembourg, Liechtenstein, Italy

113.

Northern Dvina - Sukhona

1,302

809

357,052

3,332

White Sea

Russia

114.

Krishna

1,300

808

 

Bay of Bengal

India

114.

Iriri

1,300

808

 

Xingu

Brazil

115.

Narmada

1,289

801

 

Arabian Sea

India

116.

Ottawa

1,271

790

 

Saint Lawrence

Canada

117.

Zeya

1,242

772

 

Amur

Russia

118.

Juruena

1,240

771

 

Tapajós

Brazil

119.

Upper Mississippi

1,236

768

 

Mississippi

United States

120.

Athabasca

1,231

765

 

Mackenzie

Canada

121.

Elbe - Vltava

1,231

765

148,268

711

North Sea

Germany, Czech Republic

122.

Canadian

1,223

760

 

Arkansas

United States

123.

North Saskatchewan

1,220

758

 

Saskatchewan

Canada

124.

Vaal

1,210

752

 

Orange

South Africa

125.

Shire

1,200

746

 

Zambezi

Mozambique, Malawi

126.

Nen
(Nonni)

1,190

739

 

Songhua

P. R. China

127.

Green

1,175

730

 

Colorado (western U.S.)

United States

128.

Milk

1,173

729

 

Missouri

United States, Canada

131.

Chindwin

1,158

720

 

Ayeyarwady

Myanmar

132.

Sankuru

1,150

715

 

Kasai

Democratic Republic of the Congo

133.

James (Dakotas)

1,143

710

 

Missouri

United States

133.

Kapuas

1,143

710

 

South China Sea

Indonesia

135.

Desna

1,130

702

88,900

360

Dnieper

Russia, Ukraine

135.

Helmand

1,130

702

 

Hamun-i-Helmand

Afghanistan, Iran

135.

Madre de Dios

1,130

702

 

Madeira

Peru, Bolivia

135.

Tietê

1,130

702

 

Paraná

Brazil

135.

Vychegda

1,130

702

 

Northern Dvina

Russia

140.

Sepik

1,126

700

77,700

 

Pacific Ocean

Papua New Guinea, Indonesia

141.

Cimarron

1,123

698

 

Arkansas

United States

142.

Anadyr

1,120

696

 

Gulf of Anadyr

Russia

143.

Jialing River

1,119

695

 

Yangtze

P. R. China

144.

Liard

1,115

693

 

Mackenzie

Canada

145.

White

1,102

685

 

Mississippi

United States

146.

Huallaga

1,100

684

 

Marañón

Peru

146.

Kwango

1,100

684

263,500

2,700

Kasai

Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo

148.

Gambia

1,094

680

 

Atlantic Ocean

The Gambia, Senegal, Guinea

149.

Chenab

1,086

675

 

Indus

India, Pakistan

150.

Yellowstone

1,080

671

 

Missouri

United States

151.

Chu River

1067

663

62,500

 

none

Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan

152.

Donets

1,078 (1,053)

670 (654)

 

Don

Ukraine, Russia

153.

Bermejo

1,050

652

 

Paraguay

Argentina, Bolivia

153.

Fly

1,050

652

 

Gulf of Papua

Papua New Guinea, Indonesia

153.

Guaviare

1,050

652

 

Orinoco

Colombia

153.

Kuskokwim

1,050

652

 

Bering Sea

United States

157.

Tennessee

1,049

652

 

Ohio

United States

158.

Daugava

1,020

634

 

Gulf of Riga

Latvia, Belarus, Russia

159.

Gila

1,015

631

 

Colorado (western U.S.)

United States

160.

Vistula

1,014

630

 

Baltic Sea

Poland

161.

Loire

1,012

629

 

Atlantic Ocean

France

162.

Essequibo

1,010

628

 

Atlantic Ocean

Guyana

162.

Khoper

1,010

628

 

Don

Russia

164.

Tagus
(Tajo/Tejo)

1,006

625

 

Atlantic Ocean

Spain, Portugal

165.

Colorado (Argentina)

1,000

620

 

Atlantic Ocean

Argentina

 

 

 

LINKS & REFERENCE

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ocean#Oceanic_divisions

http://www.worldatlas.com/aatlas/infopage/oceans.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

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