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Spain offers to host climate change conference in Madrid


STOP PRESS: SPANISH OFFER - Statements by UN Climate Change Executive Secretary Patricia Espinosa:


Update 31 October 2019 - Following yesterday’s announcement, the Government of Chile, as incoming Presidency, has informed me that they received a generous offer of support from the Government of Spain to hold the United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP25) in Madrid on the same dates as originally planned. We are hopeful that the COP Bureau can consider this proposed solution as soon as possible.

It is encouraging to see countries working together in the spirit of multilateralism to address climate change, the biggest challenge facing this and future generations.

30 Oct 20 19 - Earlier today, I was informed of the decision by the Government of Chile not to host COP25 in view of the difficult situation that the country is undergoing. We are currently exploring alternative hosting options.




Uncertainly remains over which country will host the Cop25 climate change conference following the sudden withdrawal of Chile – just a month before delegates from 190 countries were due to gather in Santiago.

The UN indicated that Chilean President Sebastian Pinera – whose country has been beleaguered by weeks of deadly anti-government protests – will remain as head of the conference, due to take place on 2-13 December.

"The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is now trying to see what alternative arrangements can be made," a spokesman for UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres told journalists.

Conference rules allow the venue to be located outside of the host country, as was the case in 2017 when the German city of Bonn – where the UNFCCC has its headquarters – staged the event for host Fiji.

Germany’s environment secretary tweeted that his government was in contact with last year’s Cop24 host, Poland, while New York and Geneva have also been suggested as potential alternatives. Pinera said on Thursday that Spain offered to host the Cop 25.

Earlier on, with UNFCCC Executive Secretary Patricia Espinosa conceding it is “difficult to see any country stepping in at short notice”, experts say Bonn appears the most likely fall-back option this year.

“We’re looking at a really big logistical hurdle. If they stick with the December dates, a bunch of people will be booking flights and applying for visas that probably won't be granted in that period of time," says Chris Wright, co-founder of Climate Tracker, a global network of environmental journalists.


“If they delay until January, you have the problem of all these budgets that need to be used up by the end of the year. Either way, it's going to be a tricky one for the hosts and a tricky one for people who want to join.”




HUMAN RIGHTS - Protests in Chile began over a hike in subway fares more than a week ago but boiled into riots that have killed at least 17 people, resulted in more than 7,000 arrests and caused more than $1.4 billion of losses to Chilean businesses.

Pinera earlier in the week had declared a state of emergency across much of Chile, placing the military in charge of security in Santiago and other cities and saying the country was “at war” against vandals.

The move sparked outrage among many in Chile, who said his words and actions harkened back to the grim era of military rule under dictator Augusto Pinochet.



The Cop presidency rotates among Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Europe. This year is Latin America’s turn. The silver jubilee Cop was first picked up by Brazil, until Jair Bolsonaro, a climate change sceptic, was elected president and withdrew Brazil’s candidacy in 2018.


“A lot of people will see this as a real missed opportunity because a Latin American country hosting the Cop brings a brand new element to the diplomacy and to the function of the negotiations,” explains Wright.


“It would have been a really good opportunity for Latin American countries to stand up on climate when their region is going through a very challenging economic time.”


Three Cop conferences in a row will take place in Europe if Bonn steps into the vacancy left by Chile – given that last year’s Cop24 was held in Katowice, and next year’s event is to take place in Glasgow.

“The biggest impact of holding it in Europe again is that it will limit the participation of civil society members from Latin America – but also from African and Asian countries who will be very challenged to get their visas on time,” Wright says.

Cop25 aims to flesh out how global commitments to reduce emissions this century, made under the 2015 Paris Agreement, will be implemented. Chile’s cancellation comes as US President Donald Trump is expected to formalise his country’s withdrawal from the deal.

Demonstrations against a hike in metro ticket prices in Chile's capital exploded into violence on October 18, unleashing widening protests over living costs and social inequality.





With 19 people killed and thousands of troops deployed, here is a recap of Chile's worst violence in years:


- Subway stations burn -

On October 18 violence breaks out at protests over the price hikes as demonstrators clash with riot police in the capital Santiago.

The violence escalates into the night and several metro stations are hit with Molotov cocktails.

Nearly all the 164 metro stations are attacked and 41 are destroyed, some completely charred. The whole network is shut down.

At least 16 buses are torched. The ENEL power company building and a Banco Chile branch are set on fire. Around midnight President Sebastian Pinera declares a state of emergency and deploys troops into Santiago.

- Buildings torched -

On October 19 hundreds of soldiers patrol Santiago for the first time since Augusto Pinochet's military dictatorship between 1973-1990.

Thousands of protesters bang pots and pans in the capital. There are also anti-government demonstrations in other cities such as Vina del Mar and Valparaiso.

Hooded demonstrators clash with riot police and soldiers in several areas of Santiago, including outside the presidential palace. More buildings are torched.

Pinera suspends the ticket price hike and calls for dialogue. Authorities announce an overnight curfew in Santiago.

- First deaths -

Unrest continues on October 20 with two women burning to death in the early hours in a blaze.

Police and soldiers tear gas and use water cannons against protesters in the capital, where nearly 10,000 troops and police have been deployed.

Rioters set fire to a garment factory in the city's Renca suburb. Five bodies are recovered.

"We are at war against a powerful, implacable enemy," Pinera tells reporters after an emergency meeting.

Santiago's curfew is extended for a second night and the state of emergency imposed in nine other regions.

- 'Get out military!' -

The next day, thousands of protesters gather peacefully, chanting "Get out military!"

Many of the capital's schools and universities cancel classes, public transport remains heavily disrupted and long lines form at supermarkets and petrol stations.

Pinera says he will meet on October 22 with leaders of Chile's political parties, saying he wants a "social agreement" to address people's grievances.





- Social measures rejected -

On October 22 Pinera apologizes to the nation and announces a package of social measures, including increasing the basic pension and freezing tariffs on electricity.

Chileans are unconvinced the main unions and social groups call for a general strike.

On the first day of the strike, on October 23, thousands of people flood the streets of the capital and dozens of other cities demanding the government end the state of emergency.

The country's powerful copper mine workers' unions join the strike - Chile is the world's largest copper producer - along with health and port workers.

Since the start of the protests 19 people have been killed, another 584 people injured and about 2,410 have been arrested, according to the National Institute for Human Rights. Some 20,000 police and troops have been deployed.

On October 24, Chile's Foreign Minister Teodoro Ribera says the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation Summit will go ahead in Santiago in November as planned, despite the week of deadly protests.




UN CLIMATE ACTION SUMMIT 2019 - "Global emissions are reaching record levels and show no sign of peaking. The last four years were the four hottest on record, and winter temperatures in the Arctic have risen by 3°C since 1990. Sea levels are rising, coral reefs are dying, and we are starting to see the life-threatening impact of climate change on health, through air pollution, heatwaves and risks to food security.

The impacts of climate change are being felt everywhere and are having very real consequences on people’s lives. Climate change is disrupting national economies, costing us dearly today and even more tomorrow. But there is a growing recognition that affordable, scalable solutions are available now that will enable us all to leapfrog to cleaner, more resilient economies. World leaders need to declare a state of climate emergency locally, like the UK.

The latest analysis shows that if we act now, we can reduce carbon emissions within 12 years and hold the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2°C and even, as asked by the latest science, to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels.

Thankfully, we have the Paris Agreement – a visionary, viable, forward-looking policy framework that sets out exactly what needs to be done to stop climate disruption and reverse its impact. But the agreement itself is meaningless without ambitious action.

UN Secretary-General António Guterres is calling on all leaders to come to New York on 23 September with concrete, realistic plans to enhance their nationally determined contributions by 2020, in line with reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 45 per cent over the next decade, and to net zero emissions by 2050."




TIME FOR ACTION - La Presidencia de Chile, Sebastián Piñera. Chile presentó de forma oficial este jueves la Cumbre del cambio climático (COP25), que se celebrará en diciembre próximo, en un acto en el que la ministra chilena Carolina Schmidtz pidió trabajar juntos de la acción climática porque es #TiempoDeActuar.







1. TRANSPORT: Phase out polluting vehicles. Governments aim to end the sale of new petrol, and diesel vehicles by 2040 but have no infrastructure plan to support such ambition. Such infrastructure should exceed the performance of fossil fuel filling stations, prolong EV battery life and provide power grids with a measure of load leveling. Any such system should seek to obviate the provision of millions of fast charge points where implementation could prove to be a logistical nightmare and an inefficient energy delivery system. This may involve international agreement as to energy storage format and statute to steer car makers to collaborate (in part) in a world of competition.



Conference of the Parties, zero carbon shipping to combat climate change


CLIMATE BUSTER - This solar and wind powered Cross Channel ferry (concept) is a budget zero carbon design that could be scaled up to replace bunker and LNG fueled ships from 2030, to help operators meet IMO targets. Being medium range vessels, ferries are the logical choice for development, leading to longer range cargo and passenger ships from 2040. It is important to give fleet operators clear policy steer to avoid costly investment in the wrong technology during phased changeover to keep them profitable. Eventually, oil tankers will be relics of the past. This research is also the subject of a Horizon Proposal for January 2020 aimed at longer distance cruising.



Zero carbon container ship prototype 50 meter solar and wind powered ship Container cargo vessel that is zero carbon, solar and wind powered

Zero carbon emissions cargo container ship solar and wind powered


ZERO CARBON CONTAINER VESSEL - A prototype 50 meter container ship with 6 TEU standard containers shown in red rust inhibitor paint. They can be loaded from the rear if overhead loading is not available. If this vessel performs as expected, the age of zero carbon shipping is getting closer. H2020 Calls for proposals are looking for solar or wind assisted projects, rather than zero carbon concepts. There is no reason why a part of the solar or wind rig might not be retro-fitted to an existing diesel cargo ship.


The turbines can be raised and lowered to cope with different running conditions as seen on the end view left. The main hull is cylindrical for minimum wetted area, while the outriggers provide stability, with a small wetted area for a low drag hull. The superstructure is low to reduce frontal area and air drag. Another important feature of this design is that the turbines may be furled for safe docking in ports or during storm conditions. Please note that these drawings are Design Copyright © October 17&19 2019, Bluebird Marine Systems Ltd and Cleaner Ocean Foundation Ltd.



Zero carbon container ship for long distance cargo deliveries


SUSTAINABLE CONTAINER SHIPPING - This is a 50 meter solar and wind powered prototype container transport shown with the turbines furled, as if docked in port. When folded down like this the blades do not revolve and may be locked. By this means ports do not have to make special provision for zero emission ships.


The concept may be doubled and quadrupled without too much trouble. You'd need to up-scale by a factor of 8 to match the 400 meter giants that operate today to carry 960 standard containers. That is nowhere near the capacity of a heavy bunker fueled behemoth, but it is a formula for zero carbon transportation that is theoretically workable. We believe that such a system could replace diesel fuels and eliminate the need for liquid fuels that may be potentially dangerous.



Zero carbon fishing vessel that does not use plastic nets


16M ZERO CARBON FISHING VESSELS - This is a 20 ton fishing vessel derived from the SeaVax concept that uses no plastic nets and is powered by the wind and sun. The wind generators and solar arrays are shown safely folded and locked for docking in harbour. Copyright © diagrams October 24 2019. All rights reserved, Cleaner Ocean Foundation Ltd and Bluebird Marine Systems Ltd.



Marine transport can be carbon neutral given the right policies, with phased transition in specific stages such as not to unduly penalize present investment in LNG shipping and other recent MARPOL compliant IC powered vessels. Future cargo vessel should be at least in part powered by renewable energy, on the road to zero carbon, making allowances for technology catch-up from 2030 with scrappage trade in on outdated ships and marine taxes on internal combustion engines. It is important that taxes collected may not be used for any other purpose by any participating country. In the UK taxes are collected for one purpose then used for another leading to deficits. E.g. just 5% of road taxes is used for roads. This is a recipe for bankruptcy and huge national debt. Such practices should stop in the interests of sustainability and transparency for the electorate.


Air travel powered by kerosene should attract hefty mitigation offset, where low carbon alternatives should be encouraged.


2. RENEWABLESRenewable energy should replace carbon-based fuels (coal, oil and gas) in our electricity for homes, factories, heating and transport. Coal and nuclear power plants should be phased out.


3. HOUSING: On site micro or macro generation is the best option, starting with new build homes that are both affordable and sustainable by design to replace crumbling housing stocks. Encourage building in timber to provide carbon lock from a renewable natural resource. Make sustainable housing a permitted development. Taking out the need to apply for planning permission, will cut out council blockers from the decision making process, to stamp out empire building agendas.



4. AGRICULTURE: We need to grow many more trees to absorb carbon emissions from a growing population, air travel, and to build new homes. We must control illegal slash and burn forest clearances and crack down on offenders. We should promote reductions in food waste and eating of foods that use less energy to produce. Educating children on these matters in schools and via campaigns such as no meat Mondays, should be part of ordinary study.


5. INDUSTRY: Factories should be aiming for solar heating and onsite renewable energy generation. EV parking and even service facilities should be part of new industrial estates as part of any building permissions.


6. POLITICS: - National governing bodies need to adopt rules to eliminate administrative wastages, to include scaling down spending on war machines, increasing spend on educating the public and supporting sustainable social policies that mesh with other cultures. This includes fostering policies and making funds available to close links in the technology chain to make up for lost time. Kleptocratic empire building must cease in the search for natural equilibrium. Taxes should be used only for the stated purpose. Borrowing that increases national debts and GHGs in the repaying must cease.






NOTAS RELACIONADAS - Hoy los diputados RN Catalina del Real y Eduardo Durán participaron junto al Presidente Sebastián Piñera.

Hoy fue un día importante para los medioambientalistas en Chile, ya que, el Presidente Sebastián Piñera, confirmó que el lugar escogido para desarrollar la COP 25 será el parque Bicentenario de Cerrillos.

Ante esto la diputada de Renovación Nacional e integrante de la Catalina del Real afirmó que la COP 25 es una gran instancia para ser líderes en temas medioambientales “al ser anfitriones de la Cumbre Medioambiental COP25 nos posiciona como país en el liderazgo en temas medioambientales a nivel nacional”.

También entregó un mensaje entorno a la importancia del cuidado del planeta “Nuestro planeta ha elevado su temperatura en dos y tres grados en el último tiempo, más del 90% de las especies de la flora y fauna se han ido extinguiendo, somos la última generación que podemos hacer algo para revertir el cambió global. Cuidemos nuestro planeta es el único que tenemos”.

Por su parte el diputado Eduardo Durán, presidente de la Bancada Transversal de Emergencias, Desastres Naturales y Efectos del Cambio Climático, afirmó que “el cambio climático es una realidad que nos afecta enormemente. Y no podemos ser indiferentes con nuestro planeta y las futuras generaciones. La cop 25 en Chile nos da la oportunidad de reafirmar nuestro compromiso con el medio ambiente, con responsabilidad y decisión”.

Al finalizar el diputado Durán depositó sus esperanzas en la COP25 “espero que esa cita mundial sirva para que en Chile tengamos definitivamente una ley de cambio climático que restrinja todo tipo de actividad que fomente el uso de combustibles fosiles y contaminantes y que promueva el respeto y cuidado de nuestro medio ambiente”.

Hoy el gobierno y la Ministra de Medio Ambiente Carolina Schmidt tuvieron el primer acercamiento con el empresariado para solicitar la colaboración de ellos en tan importante evento.



2019: COP 25/CMP 15/CMA 4 TBA

The next summit was expected to take place between November 11 and 22, 2019, but Chilean President Sebastian Piñera now says COP25 is more likely to be held in January 2020.

President Piñera told the press: “We will have the great responsibility of leading and advancing toward a better control of climate change and global warming.”



Carolina Schmidt


ENGINEER - Environment Minister, Carolina Schmidt, is a Commercial Engineer graduated at Chile’s Pontificia Universidad Católica. During President Sebastián Piñera first period (2010 – 2014), she served as Minister of the National Women’s Service and Minister of Education. In August 2018, she became Minister of Environment with a clear purpose: the only way to achieve sustainable development is with care and respect for the environment.

She has a cross-cutting message: climate action and economic development do not move along separate tracks; on the contrary, it implies that the way to achieve a real sustainable development is the protection of the environment; in order to achieve this, adaptation and mitigation to climate change are essential. One of her priorities is the incorporation of the gender perspective into public policies on environmental matters. She has pursued this initiative at the regional level, at the last Forum of Ministers of Environment of Latin America and the Caribbean; and at the global level, at COP24 in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.




TIME FOR ACTION! - The COP decided at its 24th session that COP 25 will take place in Chile and requested the Bureau to decide on the dates of the sessions.

The Bureau met on 7 March 2019 and decided that COP 25 / CMP 15 / CMA 2 will take place from 2 to 13 December 2019. The pre-sessional period will be from 26 November to 1 December 2019.

COP 25 / CMP 15 / CMA 2 will be organized at Parque Bicentenario Cerrillos (ex aeropuerto de Santiago) in Santiago de Chile.




While the COP25 is known as the “Time for Action” COP due to the need for all countries to expand their commitments to limit global warming, Chile wants to highlight the following topics.


Oceans play a fundamental role in mitigating climate change since they capture and store more than 90% of the heat and approximately 25% of the carbon produced by emissions from human activities. Unfortunately, the increase in heat and carbon in the ocean is having visible, global impacts, and to a large extent, irreversible, such as the increase in temperature, sea level rise, ocean acidification and changes in marine biodiversity, among others.


Antarctica, the Arctic and mountain glaciers (cryosphere), besides being major water reserves, are important climate regulators since they reflect the solar energy back into space and thus affecting the planet’s energy balance. The cryosphere is also very sensitive to global warming, which leads to melting and loss of mass, processes that are (in part) responsible for rising sea levels, loss of biodiversity and deterioration of ecosystems. Alterations occurring in Antarctica (due to climate change) will have global consequences and will last for several centuries.


The direct and indirect effects of climate change are closely related to changes in biodiversity resulting from human activity, so it is essential to ensure the preservation of biodiversity and its functions and allow for our development as a society. Biodiversity is fundamental for the adaptation and mitigation of climate change, which is why it is necessary to carry out actions that enable its preservation.

In this context, Chile has not fallen behind; it has a wide network of land and marine protected areas and is carrying out a National Plan for Wetlands Protection and working on a Draft Bill for the creation of the Biodiversity and Protected Areas Service (SBAP).



Forests deserve special mention, as they play an important role in mitigating climate change by capturing and sequestering CO2 emitted into the atmosphere. In addition, they provide a number of benefits, such as water provision, protection of soil and biodiversity in general. Chile boasts an extensive network of well-preserved native forest ecosystems, especially in the Patagonian zone. Nonetheless, in other parts of the country these ecosystems have been significantly altered and therefore their restoration must be a priority to mitigate climate change.


Estimations from climate change scenarios for Chile include increasing temperature, decreasing rainfall in the center-south and possible increases in farthest areas, and changes in glaciers surface area. These scenarios imply increasing extreme weather events and decreasing water availability, having significant impact on ecosystems, population and productive activities. In order to cope with this impact, adaptation measures are required across sectors. The implementation of these measures must be focused on institutional improvements, design of resilient infrastructure, protection of ecosystems and less vulnerable communities.


The world is facing an unprecedented process of urbanization, which in Chile is particularly evident, with 90% of Chileans living in cities. The large size of cities makes them extremely complex, but trends of weak sustainability are seen in medium-sized and small settlements as well.

Cities contribute to climate change through the use of energy for transport, construction, housing operations and production processes, and are therefore vulnerable to the impacts of climate change.

On the other hand, local mitigation actions by the cities have the potential for an immediate impact which, when added together, can create global effects and local co-benefits such as reduced air pollution.

With regard to adaptation, it is key for local and regional governments to integrate climate risks into their urban planning and management processes, in conjunction with the general public and service companies.

Renewable energies

Renewable energies are of the utmost importance for achieving sustainable development and for Chile’s ambition to be carbon neutral by mid-century, as they do not generate direct greenhouse gases emissions (unlike fossil fuels).

Chile has accomplished a rapid conversion to renewable energies without the need for direct subsidies. In fact, Chile leads Bloomberg’s Climatescope 2018 ranking as the most attractive country for the development of clean energies (out of a total of 103 emerging markets). Despite this, we are currently tapping only about 12 GW of our renewable energy potential, which exceeds 1,800 GW





Circular Economy

The fundamental principle of the circular economy is using waste as raw material for other products, drastically reducing both waste generation and the extraction of new and raw materials.

In February 2019, Chile passed a law banning the commercial use of plastic bags throughout the country. In addition, in 2016 the waste management framework law was passed, as well as extended producer responsibility and the promotion of recycling.

The country has a seal of circularity and initiatives aimed at reducing the use of plastic are being developed, such as the “Goodbye plastic straws” campaign.


Mobility in cities is a major source of greenhouse gases emissions, as well as many other externalities. To reduce them, we must think about urban planning aiming at shorter distances, prioritizing non-motorized modes and promoting public transport.

With regard to the latter point, electromobility represents a great opportunity if it goes along with renewable power generation. And it is especially attractive if the effort is focused on buses and urban trains. Santiago is moving forward decisively in this direction, extending its Metro network and implementing the world’s largest fleet of electric buses outside China.



Greta Thunberg sets sail for New York and the Chile, Santiago, for climate change talks

USA TODAY 14 AUGUST 2019 - Climate change activist Greta Thunberg sets sail for New York in the 60ft Malizia II yacht from Mayflower Marina, on August 14, 2019 in Plymouth, England. The Swedish activist Greta Thunberg began her journey to the United States today for the United Nations Climate Conference. Her mode of travel is fitting for someone who’s climate conscious: She’s arriving in an eco-friendly boat propelled by the wind, with solar panels and wind turbines to power the navigation instruments and other boat equipment.




The Cerrillos Bicentennial Park has approximately 30 gross hectares + 10 net hectares for a capacity of 25,000 people. This site is the former international airport of Santiago and has tremendous potential: Excellent connectivity, location and size to have a World Class Event Center.

The Venue of COP25 will guide visitors to the heart of the summit, taking the official delegates to the Blue Zone and the rest of the public to the Green Zone.

• Blue zone: area of the conference where the negotiations take place

• Green zone: area in which activities parallel to the conference take place, different from the negotiation processes

In this last sector, Chileans will participate in this unique citizen event thanks to the public-private partnership, to show the country's innovation and commitment to climate change.



The Santiago Arturo Merino Benitez / Nuevo Pudahuel International Airport is 20 minutes from downtown capital.


More info: www.nuevopudahuel.cl

Public transport:

The RED, The Metropolitan Mobility Network, the public transportation system of Santiago, integrates fares to the buses, the Metro and the MetroTren Nos, facilitating the trips of the attendees. These three modes are paid through a single means of payment: the card beep!

More info: www.red.cl  For more information about the Santiago Metro, enter here www.metro.cl



Greta Thunberg climate change crusader


STRAITS TIMES DECEMBER 5 2018 - Climate crusading schoolgirl Greta Thunberg pleads next generation's case - KATOWICE (AFP) - By the time 15-year-old Greta Thunberg is 45, tens of millions of people are expected to have fled their homes as climate change unleashes a maelstrom of extreme weather, crop failures and devastating forest fires.

Although it is her parent's generation and those before who have made climate change possible, it is the billions of young people like her who will bear its brunt. And she has had enough. 


"It's us who are going to live in this world. If I live to be 100 I will be alive in 2103 and that is a long time in the future," she told AFP at the COP24 climate talks. "We will have to live with the mess that older generations have made. We will have to clean it up for them. That is not fair."

Greta has become a leading name in the growing campaign from youth across the planet, pleading to lawmakers and corporations to slash greenhouse gas emissions and avert runaway global warming. Officials from nearly 200 nations are at a UN climate summit in Poland trying to agree on a rulebook that will make good on the pledges they made under the 2015 Paris agreement.

That treaty aims to limit global temperature rises to well below 2 deg C and beneath the safer threshold of 1.5 deg C if at all possible. But with just 1 deg C of warming so far, Earth is already being buffeted by superstorms, droughts and flooding made worse by rising seas. And the World Bank has warned that if action is not taken by world governments, 143 million "climate migrants" will be displaced by 2050.


Greta and her actor father Svante are at the COP24 talks in the Polish mining city of Katowice to call on lawmakers to act now for the good of future generations. And they want everyone else to do their bit. After learning about the impacts of people's carbon emissions, Greta insisted that her family become vegan and give up flying.

"For me none of this is sacrifice, I don't need those things," she said. "I understand that some people see it as sacrifice. People don't want to stop flying but it's just something we have to do. There's no other option."






Foreigners who wish to visit Chile, must obtain a tourist visa for recreation or similar purposes. This visa is granted to foreigners who intend to travel to Chile for a specific period for recreation or similar purposes. The nationals of the countries with which Chile maintains a Tourist Visa Exemption Agreement are exempted. Check if your country requires a Tourism Visa (VISTUR) in the Visa and Tariff Schedule (In the process of being updated).

Who is it for?

Foreigners who enter the country for recreational, sports, health, studies, business, family, religious or other similar purposes, without immigration purpose, permanent residence or the development of remunerated activities will be considered tourists.


What do I need to do the procedure?


Present a passport issued by the corresponding authority of the country of origin, valid for longer than the visa application deadline. Four passport-size photographs without a caption or RUT Proof of economic solvency during your stay in Chile Letter of invitation from a natural person or a company in Chile Hotel reservations when you do not have a contact person in Chile.




• Compliance with these requirements does not compromise the granting of the visa.
• During the processing of the visa application may require the presentation of additional background.


What is the validity?


The maximum term is 90 days, however, it will depend on the country. For more details, see the maximum.






To enter Chile as a tourist you have to take into account the following:


Those from countries with diplomatic relations with Chile

To enter Chile, tourists must check in at International Police by presenting their identification documents (either identity card or passport) and stamped visa (depending on the country of origin).

– Tourists from Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Uruguay, Paraguay and Peru can enter with their ID cards or equivalent documents.

– The International Police Office provides a duplicate form called "Tourism Card" when entering Chile. This card is personal and non-transferable and its duration is 90 days, extendable for another 90 days. The copy must remain in the tourist's possession for the duration of their stay in the country and must be presented to the International Police upon leaving Chile.


The extension of validity of the Tourism Card is requested in the Immigration Office of the government closest to your place of stay and if you are in the city of Santiago, the Office of Public Assistance of this Department, located on Matucana Street 1223, Santiago.

– To enter Chile as a tourist, you must prove economic solvency.




GRETA THUNBERG - is a Swedish climate activist. At the COP24 climate talks in Poland, Decembel 2018, Miss Thunberg addressed the Secretary-General of the United Nations. She received a standing ovation for one of her talks. She is behind the global school strike created to call attention to climate change. She is a rebel. With a cause. Thunberg is 15 and autistic and the newest, youngest and most powerful voice on the world stage demanding the world address global warming. Go Greta!





That is the burning question. We owe it to our children to put the brakes on the uncontrolled use of fossil fuels. All over the world schools are experiencing strike action in protest at the inaction of the United Nations members to get their act together. We need to turn the ship and we have a very small rudder. When the captain of the Titanic spotted the iceberg that sank the White Star Line's most famous ship, he tried to avoid the giant floating ice cube by putting the rudder hard over and reversing the propellers, but the ship could not turn in time to avoid a collision.


Where Greta Thunberg sent the United Nations a clear message in December 2018, how much progress will have been made by the Parties. Wil we have a bigger rudder than the Titanic, or will planet earth crash and burn. Since the inception of the COP talks, there has been very little action and a lot of hot air.


All the while we have playground bullies like Donald Trump and Vladimir Putin, the world is in danger. Russia and the USA need to grow up and stop beating up the countries that cannot afford to defend themselves. Climate Criminals like these two super powers need to look long and hard at China, where they use coal for energy, but have agreed to a call to action and are building solar and wind farms like there is no tomorrow.




WHAT IS COP ? - The United Nations Framework Convention (UNFCCC) is the international response to climate change. . It is a treaty that establishes the basic obligations of the 196 Parties (States) plus the European Union to combat climate change. It was signed at the Earth Summit in 1992 and came into force in 1994. Chile joined that year.

The Conference of the Parties (COP) is the supreme decision-making body of the Convention. The Parties meet annually to review progress in the implementation of the Convention where other instruments that support the implementation of the Convention are proposed, evaluated and approved.

The first COP was held in Berlin in 1995. To date, 24 COPs have been held, the last one in Katowice, Poland, in December 2018.

The COP Presidency is rotating in the following 5 regions of the United Nations: Africa, Asia, Central and Eastern Europe, Western Europe and Latin America and the Caribbean. Now it's Chile's turn.




Chile is responsible for only 0.25% of global emissions, however, their country is very vulnerable to climate change. They comply with 7 of the 9 conditions of vulnerability, which places them among the ten countries most affected by this phenomenon, according to the report of the Global Climate Risk Index 2017, presented by Germanwatch at COP22.

Conditions of vulnerability that Chile presents:

1. Low coastal areas
2. Forest areas exposed to forest deterioration
3. Areas prone to natural disasters
4. Areas exposed to drought and desertification
5. Areas of high urban atmospheric pollution
6. To have zones of mountainous ecosystems
7. To be a country whose economy depends to a great extent on the income generated by the production, processing and export of fossil fuels and associated products of intensive energy, or their consumption.


The only two criterias that Chile doesn’t have are: being an island or a landlocked country and countries of transit.


On the other hand, they have 8 years of a great drought that has affected 70% of their population; serious forest fires consuming more than 500 thousand hectares and destroying 17% of their native forest; Shocking floods have devastated entire cities such as Chañaral; Hailstorms in summer have strongly impacted the production of fruits such as blueberries, cherries, kiwis and table grapes in the sixth and seventh regions.


This reality does not admit double interpretation. Only a more determined climate action can change their destiny. Chile is a world reference for the seriousness and responsibility with which it assumes the commitments acquired.


In the last COP24, they delivered their 3rd Biennial Update Report on Climate Change that contains all their emissions inventory from 1990 to 2016. They were the first developing country to deliver this report and also to do so in the corresponding year (2018).


The presentation of this Report will allow them to not only to evaluate the effectiveness of the measures taken, but also is a fundamental pillar to define future climate change policies. This report is a clear and forceful reflection of Chile's commitment in terms of transparency and management of its emissions to move towards emissions neutrality, a key to sustainable development.



Santiago, Chile, home to COP25



Highlights of their report:


1) In 2016, the balance of the Forestry sector captured 65 million tCO2eq, increasing its sink status (GHG collector) by 30.8% since 1990, but decreasing it by 8.9% since 2013 (mainly due to fires forestry).


2) Countries belonging to the OECD have an average of 9.2 tons of CO2 per person, while the global average of CO2 emissions per person is 4.4 tons. We see that the greater the development, the greater the GHG emissions. Our country surpasses that figure by very little, with 4.7 tons of CO2 per person. Therefore, we must strive to decouple, on the one hand, development, and on the other, the emission of greenhouse gases. That is our goal.


3) Regarding the intensity indicators of greenhouse gas emissions by gross domestic product, this was 0.93 tons of CO2 equivalent, decreasing by 10% since 2007.


The reduction of Chile's emissions indicator shows that the country has been able to generate growth without necessarily increasing its emissions equally. This reinforces the conviction of the government of President Piñera, that there is no real development, if this is not sustainable.


Between 2014 and 2018 we doubled the generation with renewable energies from 10% to 20%, fulfilling in advance the goal of generation with unconventional energies from 20% to 2025. The goal to the year 2050 is to have 70% of clean generation.


Chile firmly believes that the scientific approach is key to further progress and that accurate and transparent data is essential to achieve effective climate action.






2012 COP 18/CMP 8, DOHA, QATAR
2014 COP 20/CMP 10, LIMA, PERU
2015 COP 21/CMP 11, Paris, France
2016 COP 22/CMP 12/CMA 1, Marrakech, Morocco
2017 COP 23/CMP 13/CMA 2, Bonn, Germany
2018 COP 24/CMP 14/CMA 3, Katowice, Poland
2019 COP 25/CMP 15/CMA 4, Santiago, Chile

2020 COP 26/CMP 16/ CMA 5, Glasgow, Scotland

2021 COP 26/Glasgow, Scotland

2022 CP27/ Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt






1. Finance
2. Energy Transition
3. Industry Transition
4. Nature-Based Solutions
5. Cities and Local Action
6. Resilience and Adaptation
7. Mitigation Strategy
8. Youth Engagement & Public Mobilization
9. Social and Political Drivers



Ryan Dusart likes solar power because it is clean renewable energy


SOLAR POWERED - Doing our bit to combat climate change, we are building an experimental rig aiming to put a larger version of the same concept on a coastal version of SeaVax from 2020 (subject to funding). The rig above is to be fitted to a Ford Transit roof in May of 2019 so that the experiment can be moved to other weather locations. This is another step in the direction of zero carbon shipping. Our experimental rig will track the sun and move arrays on either side of these fixed panels to increase the harvestable light energy. Copyright photograph © 22-04-19 Cleaner Ocean Foundation Ltd, all rights reserved.





The UNFCCC secretariat is located at two different locations.


Email: secretariat@unfccc.int
www: https://unfccc.int/calendar


Main office
UNFCCC secretariat
UN Campus
Platz der Vereinten Nationen 1
53113 Bonn

Haus Carstanjen Office
Martin-Luther-King-Strasse 8
53175 Bonn

Mailing address
UNFCCC secretariat
P.O. Box 260124
D-53153 Bonn

Phone: (49-228) 815-1000
Fax: (49-228) 815-1999
Web: http://unfccc.int 





United Nations laurel planet logo  












COP 1: Rome, Italy, 29 Sept to 10 Oct 1997

COP 9: Buenos Aires, Argentina, 21 Sept to 2 Oct 2009

COP 2: Dakar, Senegal, 30 Nov to 11 Dec 1998

COP 10: Changwon, South Korea, 10 to 20 Oct 2011

COP 3: Recife, Brazil, 15 to 26 Nov 1999

COP 11: Windhoek, Namibia, 16 to 27 Sept 2013

COP 4: Bonn, Germany, 11 to 22 Dec 2000

COP 12: Ankara, Turkey, 12 to 23 Oct 2015

COP 5: Geneva, Switzerland, 1 to 12 Oct 2001

COP 13: Ordos City, China, 6 to 16 Sept 2017

COP 6: Havana, Cuba, 25 August to 5 Sept 2003

COP 14: New Delhi, India, 2 to 13 Sept 2019

COP 7: Nairobi, Kenya, 17 to 28 Oct 2005

COP 15:  2020

COP 8: Madrid, Spain, 3 to 14 Sept 2007

COP 16:  2021





COP 1: 1994 Nassau, Bahamas, Nov & Dec

COP 8: 2006 Curitiba, Brazil, 8 Mar

COP 2: 1995 Jakarta, Indonesia, Nov

COP 9: 2008 Bonn, Germany, May

COP 3: 1996 Buenos Aires, Argentina, Nov

COP 10: 2010 Nagoya, Japan, Oct

COP 4: 1998 Bratislava, Slovakia, May

COP 11: 2012 Hyderabad, India

EXCOP: 1999 Cartagena, Colombia, Feb

COP 12: 2014 Pyeongchang, Republic of Korea, Oct

COP 5: 2000 Nairobi, Kenya, May

COP 13: 2016 Cancun, Mexico, 2 to 17 Dec

COP 6: 2002 The Hague, Netherlands, April

COP 14: 2018 Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt, 17 to 29 Nov

COP 7: 2004 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Feb

COP 15: 2020 Kunming, Yunnan, China




COP THAT - The United Nations Climate Change Conferences are yearly conferences held in the framework of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). They serve as the formal meeting of the UNFCCC Parties (Conference of the Parties, COP) to assess progress in dealing with climate change, and beginning in the mid-1990s, to negotiate the Kyoto Protocol to establish legally binding obligations for developed countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. From 2005 the Conferences have also served as the "Conference of the Parties Serving as the Meeting of Parties to the Kyoto Protocol" (CMP); also parties to the Convention that are not parties to the Protocol can participate in Protocol-related meetings as observers. From 2011 the meetings have also been used to negotiate the Paris Agreement as part of the Durban platform activities until its conclusion in 2015, which created a general path towards climate action. The first UN Climate Change Conference was held in 1995 in Berlin.



 This website is provided on a free basis as a public information service. copyright © Cleaner Oceans Foundation Ltd (COFL) (Company No: 4674774) 2019. Solar Studios, BN271RF, United Kingdom. COFL is a charity without share capital. The names AmphiMax, RiverVax and SeaVax are trade  names used under license by COF in connection with their 'Feed The World' ocean cleaning sustainability campaign.